Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a catchall term that refers to the science of computers with human-like capabilities
Machine learning is a sub-category of AI, or a way of doing AI.
Machine learning is not the same as programming. it’s a way of teaching computers what to do by way of example.
You give the computer a bunch of examples of what you want it to do and it figures out how to do it by itself.
This video provides a description of how machine learning could be used to individually identify ducks and geese in a barn without teaching them all about the details of ducks and geese.