I have long wanted to make a video about chaos, ever since reading James Gleick’s fantastic book, Chaos. I hope this video gives an idea of phase space – a picture of dynamical systems in which each point completely represents the state of the system. For a pendulum, phase space is only 2-dimensional and you can get orbits (in the case of an undamped pendulum) or an inward spiral (in the case of a pendulum with friction). For the Lorenz equations we need three dimensions to show the phase space. The attractor you find for these equations is said to be strange and chaotic because there is no loop, only infinite curves that never intersect. This explains why the motion is so unpredictable – two different initial conditions that are very close together can end up arbitrarily far apart.